Category: Ag, Natural Resources, and Horticulture

COVID-19 Risk Management Strategy Checklist from the Cornell Food Safety Extension Team

Technical Measures
  • Identify and routinely clean and sanitize high-risk locations/surfaces (Example locations)
Organizational Measures  
  • Appoint a COVID-19 point person within the organization to handle communication and coordination
  •    Regularly update staff regarding COVID-19
  •   Prohibit non-essential visitors and outside contractors
  • Prohibit interaction with truck drivers and limit their movement in the facility
  •   Determine the frequency and types of cleaning and sanitizing
  •  Identify supplies that may be jeopardized in the current supply chain and plan allocation accordingly
  • Anytime there is a substitution or change in formulation, your food safety plan should be reviewed which may lead to a process authority review
Personnel Measures
  • Develop and implement guidance for employees (Example)
  • Develop and use protocol for employee screening (See here for a suggested/example of a screening sheet that could be used)
  •   Instruct staff to practice social distancing
    • Maintain at least 6 feet of distance between each other whenever possible
    • Avoid personal contact: shaking hands, etc.
  •  Refresh staff on proper hand hygiene and glove practices including handwashing and refraining from touch your face
  •  Refresh staff on limited supply levels (gloves and other PPE) and to use it accordingly
  •  Develop and use protocol for respiratory hygiene (see here for example guidance)
  • Promote protective behavioral measures: avoiding touching doorknobs by hand, etc.
  • Reset break and meeting rooms seating to promote physical distancing
  • Maintain active managerial surveillance for ill/symptomatic employees
  •   Enforce and communicate proactive sick leave policy
    •  Reporting personal illness
    • Reporting illness in the home
This is an initial draft, please contact Louise Felker with feedback and suggestions for corrections. We will continue to provide updates as new versions are available.
The Cornell Food Safety Extension Team

Corn Silage Dry Down Day Results

CCE educator Paul Cerosaletti addressing group in field with corn crops

19 samples of corn were tested on September 18th and averaged 29% Dry Matter (DM). Samples ranged from 24% DM to 34% DM. Whole field DM will be 2 points wetter than a small sample. Download the results (PDF)

A few fields are getting close to or are at target Dry Matter (DM) for harvest, but many are 10 – 21 days out from predicted target harvest moisture, assuming an average dry down rate of 0.5% point per day. This could change with extended dry weather, frosted corn and/or advanced leaf disease damage.

We found that most samples had extensive symptoms of early leaf disease, which may progress rapidly in next few weeks with above average temperatures, dry weather, and maybe even frost in the forecast.


  • Harvesting too early (<32%DM) will result in reduced yield, reduced silage starch content, challenged fermentation and increased risk for silo juicing (which is a potent pollutant as well as tough on silos).
  • It is critical to continue monitoring whole plant DM. Getting DM into the target zone yields best fermentation.
  • Using reputable inoculants, especially when it is getting too dry, can help. Inoculants containing Lactobacillus Buchneri have been shown to be more effective with corn silage.
  • Increasing chop length with wetter silage will reduce silo juicing.
Our next dry down day will be on Tuesday, October 1, 2019 from 10:00am – 2:30pm at
DelRose Farm (The Hanselman’s)
9636 County Route 18 Bloomville NY 13739
Can’t make it? We can test dry matters at any time in our office!  Call the either the Nutrient Management or Precision Feed Management teams at 607-865-7090.

Be on the Lookout for Black Cutworm Damage in Corn in Delaware County!

This spring throughout the Northeast we are seeing areas with increased catches of Black Cutworm moths in pheromone traps.  Delaware County is one of these areas with elevated Black Cutworm moth catches, and we are starting to hear reports of cutworm damage in the county.  While Integrated Pest Management specialists are quick to point out that elevated catches do not necessarily mean damage will be greater, it does signify that the risk of cutworm damage may be greater.

Black Cutworm moths travel in from other parts of the US on storm fronts, as do many other crop pests.  The moths typically (although not always) look to lay their eggs in areas where there is some green growth, such as weedy fields.  Black Cutworms are nocturnal and feed on corn plants at night.  During the day they hide in the soil at the base of corn plants.   Delayed crop planting this year, puts the seedling corn at greater risk as economic damage thresholds are more quickly achieved on smaller corn plants:

What to D0:

  1. Scout your Corn:Now is the time to get out in corn fields and look for cutworm damage.   Cutworm damage is easy to spot; look for corn plants cut off as the soil level.  Sometimes (especially in dry conditions) the larvae will cut the palnt below the soil surface and the corn seedling will simply wilt and die in place.   Depending on when plants were cut, there may or may not be a corn plant yet on the soil surface.   Where there is evidence of freshly cut plants, dig into the soil within a couple inch radius of the corn plant.  Typically, the cutworm (a black greasy looking caterpillar) can be found readily (see photo).    It should be noted that cutworm damage can look a lot like bird damage where birds snip of the corn plant in the process of trying to pull it up.  The defining variable will be the finding of the cutworm larvae.
  2. Act if Necessary:  Just because you find cutworm damage and live cutworms does NOT mean that you have the pest at a level that will cause economic damage.    Integrated pest management specialists have determined the following economic damage thresholds, when reached or exceeded, would warrant chemical control;
    1. Corn at V2 stage (2 fully emerged leaves with leaf collars)  – 2 cut plants per 100
    2. Corn at V3 stage (3 fully emerged leaves with leaf collars)  – 3 cut plants per 100
    3. Corn at V4 stage (4 fully emerged leaves with leaf collars)  – 5 cut plants per 100
    4. Corn at V5 stage (5 fully emerged leaves with leaf collars)   – 7 cut plants per 100

NOTE:  Be realistic about how extensive the damage is in the field – it may only be in an isolated area

NOTE: If larvae are large (1.25″) they will pupate soon and most of the damage is already done.

If you find you have economic damage and larvae still have growth left (and damage left to do), chemical control is an option, and can be combined with herbicide applications that may still need to be done.

Black Cutworm and Cut Corn Plant – Photo Jamie Cummings, NYS IPM



There’s Always a Benefit

I caught myself saying this phrase the other day, “Remember there is a benefit, it just might not be the benefit you’re looking for at that moment”. I was talking with a dairy farmer about how wet his pastures were and the fact that the pasture quality is getting low and the quantity is getting high but it is too wet to clip without sinking out of sight. My statement references the natural nutrient cycle that is created in a compost pile or when a cover crop is sprayed or rolled. Because of the mature nature of the grass at this point, Mid-June, the dairy herd is probably going to leave a large amount of grass out in the pasture. What to do with the rest… This particular farmer was using his heifers to try and eat what the lactating herd left. This is a good idea and allows you to let the lactating herd to eat the “best” and leave the rest. Another benefit is the refusal itself. With pastures getting overgrown this year, I am going to go out on a limb and guess that manure or fertilizer may not have made it to the pasture either because of the wet conditions. The trampled grasses, forbs, and legumes left after grazing can add nutrients back to your pasture as they decompose and feed the microbes that release nutrients to the living portions of the plant that are beginning to tiller and regrow. The mat of grass also helps keep your cows from sinking through and pugging up the pasture and reducing compaction. So I will end with how I started, Remember there is a benefit, it just might not be the benefit you’re looking for at that moment. Happy Grazing!

P.S. for further reading check out this article form

What Makes Grass Grow Back Fastest – Trampling, Clipping or Cow Spit?

By Ben Hepler:

Short on Feed Inventory? Increase Grass Yield This Spring!

The Yield and Economic Response is Solid (Virtually Guaranteed, Nearly a Sure-Bet etc.)
Wet weather last summer has left many farms with tight forage inventories this spring. Budgets are probably even tighter. Year in and year out, one of the most reliable crop production investments is nitrogen fertilization of grass crops in the spring. Applying 75 to 100 lbs nitrogen per acre at green up increases yields (about 50% more in first cut) and quality (about 4 points higher CP and 3 points lower NDF). The graph below shows Forage Income over the Cost of N fertilizer from a N response trial in Delaware County a few years ago. N application, at recommended rates, gave a significant return even if fertilizer prices are well above what we expect to see this spring.

Cutting Management Critical
Cutting management goes with N fertilization. Early cut grass is highly digestible, and most of you know from experience that cows perform when you feed it. When N is not applied, many are reluctant to cut when grass is at peak quality, deferring to wait for more yield. Fertilized fields have good growth at peak quality, and fields cut early regrow quickly and usually will have a nearly equal second cut 30 days later. N fertilization and aggressive cutting management.

When is the Right Time?
So, when is the right time to begin grass harvest? The chart below shows fiber content (NDF%) and fiber digestibility (NDFD) by the day in May taken from the past 11 years of scissors cut samples in Delaware County. The long term average is for grass to reach the optimum NDF level (50%NDF) for starting grass harvest on May 16,. You will also notice that as the month progresses, fiber digestibility trends down as fiber content goes up. More mature grass has more fiber and that fiber is less digestible, meaning a cow can eat less (fewer pounds) and gets less energy from each pound she eats. Watch the scissor cut reports to see how this year’ crop develops and be ready to begin harvest when the first weather opportunity hits.

Fertilization Strategies
Grass needs Sulphur too, so it’s becoming more common to see a little ammonium sulfate (AMS) mixed with urea for grass topdress, especially where there is little or no manure history (manure is an excellent source of Sulphur). Consider a 75% uea-25% AMS blend. Our recommendations are to apply N at green up in the spring (early-mid April, depending on the year) If you’re applying urea this early, you should consider a nitrogen stabilizer to protect your fertilizer investment from wafting off with the breeze, if the application cannot be timed close to a rain fall. Later application also will likely benefit, but the chances of good conditions, rainfall and rapid N uptake, are better then.
When grass has good fertility, first cutting yields are high yielding and of excellent quality. Highly digestible forages have always been a key factor in low cost rations. So in a year with tight margins and tight forage inventories, fertilizing those core grass fields, where aggressive harvest is going to happen, is a sound investment.

You can’t afford to have sore feet

Dollar losses due to lameness are not easily detected on dairy farms.  That also means that there is a cost to not maintaining health hooves in your dairy herd.  Dr. Chuck Guard, DVM, Cornell University recently updated his cost analysis for lameness at around $545.00 per incident. This disease is one of the highest costs with loss in milk production of 750 pounds and reproduction. It takes 28 more days to get a 2 year old cow pregnant as an example. This is not to mention the long term consequences of having sore feet.

The best policy is to develop a no lameness tolerance.  It is better to have a prevention plan rather than have a reaction plan to sore feet.

Here are some steps to take to accomplish a prevention plan.

  • Locomotion observation. Locomotion Scoring information and charts are available on the CCE Delaware website.  There are even videos online that show cows with sore feet walking with head bobs and arched backs.  Observing cows as they stand will not always reveal when sore feet are present.
  • Early intervention with weekly observation of heifers starting at 10 months of age and by following a Veterinarian approved/ prescribed practice of spraying or better yet a foot bath would decrease the prevalence of having Digital Dermatitis also known as “Hairy Foot Wart” in the whole herd. Hairy Foot Wart manifests in an anaerobic (no oxygen), dirty, moist environment and can easily be spread to herdmates.  Once the skin gets weakened the causative bacteria can penetrate and cause the lesion.   Keeping feet clean by scraping stalls often, providing dry stalls or areas to lay down is important. Wallowing in manure and mud is the environment that is a brewing place for trouble.
  • Karl Burgi with the Dairyland Hoof Care Institute recommends a foot bath system with side walls and a 20 to 22” wide bath that is 2 and ½” deep and 10 to 12’ long. This system prevents cows from defecating as they walk through it and prevent weakening the footbath solution giving the needed 6 second contact.
  • Hoof trimming should be scheduled so that first calf heifers have functional healthy feet prior to freshening and cows are looked at in the early part of the dry period to decrease any stressor in the transition period at the very least.
  • Plan on a 24 hour turn around treatment for cows with sore foot that are early in the transition period to early lactation since this is a stressful time period.
  • Hoof trimming does not mean that the trimmer needs to have a pile of hoof shavings to have done a good job. Cleaning off the foot and taking a look is all that may need to be done. Dr. Karl Burgi’s comment is that 85% of cows are over trimmed.
  • Groves in flooring should be done in the direction of cattle traffic and should be ¾” wide, ½ “deep, and ¾ “center to center. The reasoning for this is that would prevent cows from sliding and when cleaning the barn it moves the manure out of the grooves more efficiently than if cross grooving.
  • New “green” concrete or rough surfaces where cows walk will make hooves wear quicker and cause potential sole ulcerations. Taking the time to smooth out surfaces are vital for good hoof health.  Grooved concrete that has just cured needs to have smoothing done by some method.  Examples of that usually involve another heavy concrete block dragged across the surface enough times so that you can walk across it comfortably in bare feet.
  • Pay attention to broken stall dividers as the break near the concrete could provide a hazard to feet. Walkways that have sharp gravel can be an issue as well.  Talk to your dairy nutritionist about a good zinc source to help strengthen hooves.
  • Keep good records from the hoof trimmer. Cows that have had permanent damage from prolonged inflammatory situations may need to be on your cull list if they are chronically sore footed.
  • Don’t keep wraps on longer than 24 hours. The purpose for wraps are to hold any medication or treatment on the foot or protect a wound for a short time from having manure etc. entering it directly. Having a wrap more than 24 hours actually promotes more filth being closer to the foot.
  • Cows need 12 hours of lying time for rest and rumination. Cows that are standing for prolonged periods of time are telling you something. They could be heat stressed and standing to gain more air circulation to cool off or they may not have a clean, dry, and comfortable bed to lay down in such as an overcrowded free stall. Also ally scrapers can be a source of pooled manure.
  • When purchasing cattle, quarantine them if possible check for hairy foot wart and treat them immediately and aggressively.


Locomotion Scoring: (Photo Credit)

Karl Burgi:

Hoards Dairymen Webinars:

By April Wright Lucas, Community Educator

Armyworms Found in Delaware County Cropfields; Scout Fields Now!

This week there have been a couple reports of corn fields in Delaware County with significant armyworm damage.  In one case the fields were later planted corn after sod.  A few fields have been sprayed for control.

Armyworms (also known as True Armyworms) are a pest of grass, corn and small grains.    Moths and caterpillars are both nocturnal. Caterpillars are smooth and marked with two orange, white-bordered strips on each side.  They vary in color from dark greenish-brown to black and are marked with two orange, white-bordered strips on each side. Caterpillars start out ⅛ inch and grow to approximately 1½ inches long, then pupate just below the soil surface. The caterpillar stage lasts about 3 weeks, but they are usually 10 to 14 days old before damage is noticed.

Damage in corn fields appears as ragged holes chewed from the leaf margins and pellet-like droppings (frass) in the whorls and scattered on the ground. The caterpillars will be found in the leaf whorls or at the surface of the soil. In grass hay fields, caterpillars will begin feeding during the night time on lower parts of the plant and spend the daylight hours in plant debris on the ground surface.  As caterpillars grow in size, they spend more time feeding during daylight hours and feeding on the upper parts of the plant.

Recommended economic spray thresholds for corn:

  • Seedling: 10 percent or more plants show damage and larvae are still present.
  • whorl-stage: apply an insecticide when there are three or more larvae per plant.
  • Tall corn seldom needs treatment unless the leaves above the ear are also damaged.

NOTE: When larvae are larger than 1.25”, control is not as effective, and most damage is already done.

Recommended economic thresholds for small grains:

  • Wheat/small grains – 5 or more larvae per linear ft of row, larvae less than 1.25 inches and not parasitized, watch for flag leaf reduction or if grain heads clipped off – yield losses, a spray before soft dough to save the remaining 3 upper leaves is generally beneficial since these tissues are still important to grain filling.

Recommended economic thresholds for grasses:

  • Grasses – no specific guidelines available, need for treatment based on the level of damage observed in relation to the expected value of grass harvest

REMEMBER… if you have a true armyworm infestation in a mixed alfalfa – grass stand, alfalfa and grass BOTH NEED to be on the LABEL!!!

For more on True Armyworm click here

True Armyworm larvae and feeding damage on corn.

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Fencing how they all can Intertwine

By Ben Hepler, Community Educator

Fencing, it’s a necessity, unless all of your neighbors in your area are into living like the Native Americans when herds of wild bison roamed the land free to poop and trample where ever. In this article we will cover a few products that you may encounter on your farm that you could re-purpose to build or repair your fences, whether they be electric or barb wire.

We will start with the corner and end posts because without a good end, you will never be able to keep your fence tight. Now there are a few different designs for corners and end posts but we will focus on the style below.

Related image

Photo obtained at

For me the biggest issue was finding a decent horizontal brace to use in my corner or end post design. I have found that the heavy black plastic cores that are left after wrapping your baleage work very well when pieced together with 3in PVC couplings. Below is an image of the finished product at my farm. What’s nice is that there is no need to line up a pin to a drilled hole on the horizontal wood piece. Now you can put the pin in a 3in hole and they are lighter than their wooden counterpart.

On our farm I have re-purposed old coated copper wire to jump electric fence across the road. I have also used left over 3/4in PVC pipe to bury the electric fence line in a gate opening. That way both sides of the fence stay electrified even if the electric gate is down or disconnected. Finally, I have used old garden hose as electric fence insulators in a pinch. On the barb wire front I used to get pretty creative at piecing old rusty wire together that if you sneezed wrong it would break. I have found that it is easier on my time to just put a new strand up, take the old strand off, roll it up into a wreath shape, and use them as Christmas decorations.

In closing, when it’s 10:30 at night and normal businesses are closed and the 9-5ers are asleep dreaming, cows get out, and farmers get really good at practicing the 3 R’s when it comes to fencing. Better yet, put them in the barn, go back to sleep, and deal with it in the morning. Happy Grazing!

Managing Some Pasture Weeds Found in Marginal Pastures

By Ben Hepler, Community Educator

As I was looking out at my pasture behind the barn I thought to myself, “boy it would be nice to do a better job of controlling buttercup, swamp grass, and yellow nutsedge”. The pasture lays nice but in my area, often the flat field at the base of the hill slope is also the somewhat poorly drained field.  The vegetation that I call swamp grass is actually slender rush here in the northeast. In this article we will cover how these plants spread, their habitat preference, how to identify them, and how to control them.

I am an aspiring grazier and I have been going to grazing conferences since I was in 8th grade. Believe me, the teachers had a field day when I would tell them I was going to a grass conference. So I try to maximize the pasture’s ability to produce quality forage the best I can with the time and funds I have at my disposal. However, even the best laid plans fall short sometimes and I find buttercup, slender rush and yellow nutsedge sneaking their way in. They creep in over the years with their spreading rhizomes and seed. They call home in seasonally wet areas, high traffic spots, and areas that have been selectively grazed from time to time without action taken to keep the grasses and legumes competitive against unpalatable forbs. To identify, they say sedges have edges, rushes are round, but grasses have knees. The take away here is that rushes have continuous round stems with a hollow pith or center, sedge stems are angular and almost triangular on the flowering stem, and grasses have knees because their stems are round or flat but have joints along them.  I have always found that the slender rush looks like a spiked bunch grass and yellow nutsedge has a lighter pale green hue to it than grasses and the plant feels different in terms of texture. Buttercup on the other hand has a distinct leaf and once blooming is very easy to identify.

To control the spread of these sneaky weeds start with making sure your pasture fertility is where it should be to produce high quality grasses and legumes. Once fertility is where it should be move onto eradication. Mowing before flowers form will stop the spread of the plants via seed and slow the spread of the rhizomes because frequent mowing will drain the energy reserves in the root system. You could try increased animal pressure in a rotational grazing system. I have seen my cows eat these three weeds when very young. Mechanical tillage and replanting might work in areas that can take machinery later in the year when things dry up. Artificially lowing the water table with drainage tile could also help improve the competitiveness of your grasses and legumes compared to these sneaky weeds. Finally, you could use herbicides to combat these weeds. One of the options would be to spray-kill the pasture and no-till in your new pasture mix. The other option could be to use a herbicide such as Permit or Yukon. These herbicides kill broadleaf weeds which includes buttercup, sedges and rushes. Permit and Yukon have also had hay and pasture applications added to their labels with no risk to lactating or non-lactating cattle. However, be sure to read the labels on the herbicide to properly apply it if you have a license or have a professional do it. Though these weeds aren’t as obnoxious as thistle or multifloral rose, once established they have the potential to limit the productivity of your pastures and can be hard to eradicate because of their growth habit and preferred habitat. Happy Grazing! and remember to concentrate on pastures that are vital to your operation first then branch out.

Oh! one last fun fact for the craft person in your life, if you want to try and make a few extra dollars from slender rush you could try making and selling rush candle sets to homesteaders, off the grid folks, or living history museums.



Related image

Yellow Nutsedge

Image result for common rush in a pasture

Slender Rush in a Pasture

Image result for meadow buttercup leaves

Meadow Buttercup


Rush Candle with iron stand


  1. Anderson G. Weed Control Options for Pasture. Cooperative Extension: Garden & Yard. 2014 May 29 [accessed 2018 Jun 20].
  2. Jacobs, J., M. Graves, and J. Mangold. 2010. Plant guide
    for tall buttercup (Ranunculus acris L.). USDA-Natural
    Resources Conservation Service, Montana State Office.
    Bozeman, Montana 59715.
  3. O’Neil K, Hunter M. Sneaky Pasture Weeds- Sedges and Rushes. Cornell Field Crops News. 2014 Jul 15 [accessed 2018 Jun 20].
  4. Plant Database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center – The University of Texas at Austin. [accessed 2018 Jun 20].
  5. Sellers B, Ferrell J. Soft Rush (Juncus effusus) Control in Pastures. Range Cattle Research & Education Center. 2009 [accessed 2018 Jun 20].
  6. Yukon ( and Permit ( herbicides, Gowan Company.

Picture citations:

  1. Brown G. Menu. Country Diary of a 21st Century Woman. [accessed 2018 Jun 20].
  2. Nutsedge. Bucks Country Gardens. [accessed 2018 Jun 20].
  3. Ranunculus acris. Wikipedia. 2018 Jun 19 [accessed 2018 Jun 20].
  4. What is Rushlight? Rushlight Events. [accessed 2018 Jun 20].

Scissors Cut Report 5/24/2018

Mow, Mow as Fast as You Can

Hay has continued to grow rapidly this week and grass fields are at target NDF.  Legume/grass stands have also reached their target NDF as of this sampling.  Harvest of grass and mixed stands should progress as rapidly as possible.  Legume fields are 5 to 7 days away from target NDF.

Grasses and legumes grew an average of 7 inches this week and increased by an average of 1 point of NDF per day this past week.  NDF digestibility is still above 70%, but as grasses mature digestibility decreases rapidly as stem elongation advances.  We recommend pausing corn planting and completing harvest of core acres as soon as possible.

Table 1 has each sample location, listed by Town and elevation, and lists the species sampled, average height, and neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom).  NDF is the best predictor for forage harvest timing, we recommend harvest of grasses starting about 50% NDF and Alfalfa about 40% NDF, with mixed stands between 40 and 50 based on the alfalfa content.

We have included 24 hour Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility (NDFD), a measure of how quickly and completely forage can be digested in a cow’s rumen, larger numbers are better.  Also is a column for un-digestible fiber (uNDF240), is correlated with how much of a forage a cow can eat, determining dry matter intake potential. Lower uNDF240 is better.

Haylage in a Day

As is often the case, we had a one day weather window this week, and several farms were able to take advantage and get a field or two done.  The key is mowing in a wide swath (80% + of mower width if possible), even tedding after a couple hours of drying.  Rapid dry down preserves more sugar in the forage aiding in better fermentation and more digestible nutrients.  More days available for harvest and more nutrients per pound of forage are a winning combination.  Click here for a web page with a good description of the concept.

A timely first cut is the essential first step to an adequate inventory of high quality feed.  It’s our goal to provide this weekly crop progress report to support you in planning for a successful hay harvest season.

Click Delaware County Scissor Cut 5_24_18 for a printable pdf of this report.