Dollar losses due to lameness are not easily detected on dairy farms. That also means that there is a cost to not maintaining health hooves in your dairy herd. Dr. Chuck Guard, DVM, Cornell University recently updated his cost analysis for lameness at around $545.00 per incident. This disease is one of the highest costs with loss in milk production of 750 pounds and reproduction. It takes 28 more days to get a 2 year old cow pregnant as an example. This is not to mention the long term consequences of having sore feet.
The best policy is to develop a no lameness tolerance. It is better to have a prevention plan rather than have a reaction plan to sore feet.
Here are some steps to take to accomplish a prevention plan.
- Locomotion observation. Locomotion Scoring information and charts are available on the CCE Delaware website. There are even videos online that show cows with sore feet walking with head bobs and arched backs. Observing cows as they stand will not always reveal when sore feet are present.
- Early intervention with weekly observation of heifers starting at 10 months of age and by following a Veterinarian approved/ prescribed practice of spraying or better yet a foot bath would decrease the prevalence of having Digital Dermatitis also known as “Hairy Foot Wart” in the whole herd. Hairy Foot Wart manifests in an anaerobic (no oxygen), dirty, moist environment and can easily be spread to herdmates. Once the skin gets weakened the causative bacteria can penetrate and cause the lesion. Keeping feet clean by scraping stalls often, providing dry stalls or areas to lay down is important. Wallowing in manure and mud is the environment that is a brewing place for trouble.
- Karl Burgi with the Dairyland Hoof Care Institute recommends a foot bath system with side walls and a 20 to 22” wide bath that is 2 and ½” deep and 10 to 12’ long. This system prevents cows from defecating as they walk through it and prevent weakening the footbath solution giving the needed 6 second contact.
- Hoof trimming should be scheduled so that first calf heifers have functional healthy feet prior to freshening and cows are looked at in the early part of the dry period to decrease any stressor in the transition period at the very least.
- Plan on a 24 hour turn around treatment for cows with sore foot that are early in the transition period to early lactation since this is a stressful time period.
- Hoof trimming does not mean that the trimmer needs to have a pile of hoof shavings to have done a good job. Cleaning off the foot and taking a look is all that may need to be done. Dr. Karl Burgi’s comment is that 85% of cows are over trimmed.
- Groves in flooring should be done in the direction of cattle traffic and should be ¾” wide, ½ “deep, and ¾ “center to center. The reasoning for this is that would prevent cows from sliding and when cleaning the barn it moves the manure out of the grooves more efficiently than if cross grooving.
- New “green” concrete or rough surfaces where cows walk will make hooves wear quicker and cause potential sole ulcerations. Taking the time to smooth out surfaces are vital for good hoof health. Grooved concrete that has just cured needs to have smoothing done by some method. Examples of that usually involve another heavy concrete block dragged across the surface enough times so that you can walk across it comfortably in bare feet.
- Pay attention to broken stall dividers as the break near the concrete could provide a hazard to feet. Walkways that have sharp gravel can be an issue as well. Talk to your dairy nutritionist about a good zinc source to help strengthen hooves.
- Keep good records from the hoof trimmer. Cows that have had permanent damage from prolonged inflammatory situations may need to be on your cull list if they are chronically sore footed.
- Don’t keep wraps on longer than 24 hours. The purpose for wraps are to hold any medication or treatment on the foot or protect a wound for a short time from having manure etc. entering it directly. Having a wrap more than 24 hours actually promotes more filth being closer to the foot.
- Cows need 12 hours of lying time for rest and rumination. Cows that are standing for prolonged periods of time are telling you something. They could be heat stressed and standing to gain more air circulation to cool off or they may not have a clean, dry, and comfortable bed to lay down in such as an overcrowded free stall. Also ally scrapers can be a source of pooled manure.
- When purchasing cattle, quarantine them if possible check for hairy foot wart and treat them immediately and aggressively.
Locomotion Scoring: https://www.zinpro.com/lameness/dairy/locomotion-scoring (Photo Credit)
Karl Burgi: http://comforthoofcare.com/
Hoards Dairymen Webinars: https://hoards.com/flex-309-Webinars.html
By April Wright Lucas, Community Educator
Ga-Ga Ball! The excited chanting of campers experiencing this game for the first time at Shankitunk was music to our ears this summer. Traditionally 4-Square is the place to be during free recreation time, but gaga proved to be a smashing success that the kids loved. How did this sensation come to be; a little organization and a lot of love and support from our community. Camp Director, Corrine Tompkins, first pitched the idea of a gaga pit to bring life back into the volleyball court, an area of camp that was being under-utilized. The beauty of gaga is that children of different ages and skill levels can all play at once. Games tend to go quickly meaning that once a camper gets out, they don’t have to wait long for a new game to start.
4-H Camp Shankitunk received a grant from the Stewarts Holiday Match Program to purchase the bracket system and wall buffers for the pit. Donors and alumni pitched in throughout the year kicking off on #GivingTuesday to raise funds for an ADA compliant door and other miscellaneous pit expenses. Lumber siding was donated by Pickett Building Materials and Bestway. The Cornell chapter of AlphaZeta donated funding to purchase sand for the area which was trucked free of charge by Seward’s Sand and Gravel. Staff worked to prep the site, after which local volunteers helped level out two loads of pea stone donated by local friends of camp. The final step was assembling the pit. Volunteers helped us get started, but weather forced staff to finish up another day. A plaque will be installed next summer to recognize the contributions of everyone involved in making this project a success that our campers will be able to enjoy for generations to come.
We’d like to thank our community for their role in this new and exciting addition to 4-H Camp Shankitunk.
This week there have been a couple reports of corn fields in Delaware County with significant armyworm damage. In one case the fields were later planted corn after sod. A few fields have been sprayed for control.
Armyworms (also known as True Armyworms) are a pest of grass, corn and small grains. Moths and caterpillars are both nocturnal. Caterpillars are smooth and marked with two orange, white-bordered strips on each side. They vary in color from dark greenish-brown to black and are marked with two orange, white-bordered strips on each side. Caterpillars start out ⅛ inch and grow to approximately 1½ inches long, then pupate just below the soil surface. The caterpillar stage lasts about 3 weeks, but they are usually 10 to 14 days old before damage is noticed.
Damage in corn fields appears as ragged holes chewed from the leaf margins and pellet-like droppings (frass) in the whorls and scattered on the ground. The caterpillars will be found in the leaf whorls or at the surface of the soil. In grass hay fields, caterpillars will begin feeding during the night time on lower parts of the plant and spend the daylight hours in plant debris on the ground surface. As caterpillars grow in size, they spend more time feeding during daylight hours and feeding on the upper parts of the plant.
Recommended economic spray thresholds for corn:
- Seedling: 10 percent or more plants show damage and larvae are still present.
- whorl-stage: apply an insecticide when there are three or more larvae per plant.
- Tall corn seldom needs treatment unless the leaves above the ear are also damaged.
NOTE: When larvae are larger than 1.25”, control is not as effective, and most damage is already done.
Recommended economic thresholds for small grains:
- Wheat/small grains – 5 or more larvae per linear ft of row, larvae less than 1.25 inches and not parasitized, watch for flag leaf reduction or if grain heads clipped off – yield losses, a spray before soft dough to save the remaining 3 upper leaves is generally beneficial since these tissues are still important to grain filling.
Recommended economic thresholds for grasses:
- Grasses – no specific guidelines available, need for treatment based on the level of damage observed in relation to the expected value of grass harvest
REMEMBER… if you have a true armyworm infestation in a mixed alfalfa – grass stand, alfalfa and grass BOTH NEED to be on the LABEL!!!
For more on True Armyworm click here
By Ben Hepler, Community Educator
Fencing, it’s a necessity, unless all of your neighbors in your area are into living like the Native Americans when herds of wild bison roamed the land free to poop and trample where ever. In this article we will cover a few products that you may encounter on your farm that you could re-purpose to build or repair your fences, whether they be electric or barb wire.
We will start with the corner and end posts because without a good end, you will never be able to keep your fence tight. Now there are a few different designs for corners and end posts but we will focus on the style below.
Photo obtained at http://glahome.pw/detail/62477/wire-fence-building-tips-texags.html
For me the biggest issue was finding a decent horizontal brace to use in my corner or end post design. I have found that the heavy black plastic cores that are left after wrapping your baleage work very well when pieced together with 3in PVC couplings. Below is an image of the finished product at my farm. What’s nice is that there is no need to line up a pin to a drilled hole on the horizontal wood piece. Now you can put the pin in a 3in hole and they are lighter than their wooden counterpart.
On our farm I have re-purposed old coated copper wire to jump electric fence across the road. I have also used left over 3/4in PVC pipe to bury the electric fence line in a gate opening. That way both sides of the fence stay electrified even if the electric gate is down or disconnected. Finally, I have used old garden hose as electric fence insulators in a pinch. On the barb wire front I used to get pretty creative at piecing old rusty wire together that if you sneezed wrong it would break. I have found that it is easier on my time to just put a new strand up, take the old strand off, roll it up into a wreath shape, and use them as Christmas decorations.
In closing, when it’s 10:30 at night and normal businesses are closed and the 9-5ers are asleep dreaming, cows get out, and farmers get really good at practicing the 3 R’s when it comes to fencing. Better yet, put them in the barn, go back to sleep, and deal with it in the morning. Happy Grazing!
By Ben Hepler, Community Educator
As I was looking out at my pasture behind the barn I thought to myself, “boy it would be nice to do a better job of controlling buttercup, swamp grass, and yellow nutsedge”. The pasture lays nice but in my area, often the flat field at the base of the hill slope is also the somewhat poorly drained field. The vegetation that I call swamp grass is actually slender rush here in the northeast. In this article we will cover how these plants spread, their habitat preference, how to identify them, and how to control them.
I am an aspiring grazier and I have been going to grazing conferences since I was in 8th grade. Believe me, the teachers had a field day when I would tell them I was going to a grass conference. So I try to maximize the pasture’s ability to produce quality forage the best I can with the time and funds I have at my disposal. However, even the best laid plans fall short sometimes and I find buttercup, slender rush and yellow nutsedge sneaking their way in. They creep in over the years with their spreading rhizomes and seed. They call home in seasonally wet areas, high traffic spots, and areas that have been selectively grazed from time to time without action taken to keep the grasses and legumes competitive against unpalatable forbs. To identify, they say sedges have edges, rushes are round, but grasses have knees. The take away here is that rushes have continuous round stems with a hollow pith or center, sedge stems are angular and almost triangular on the flowering stem, and grasses have knees because their stems are round or flat but have joints along them. I have always found that the slender rush looks like a spiked bunch grass and yellow nutsedge has a lighter pale green hue to it than grasses and the plant feels different in terms of texture. Buttercup on the other hand has a distinct leaf and once blooming is very easy to identify.
To control the spread of these sneaky weeds start with making sure your pasture fertility is where it should be to produce high quality grasses and legumes. Once fertility is where it should be move onto eradication. Mowing before flowers form will stop the spread of the plants via seed and slow the spread of the rhizomes because frequent mowing will drain the energy reserves in the root system. You could try increased animal pressure in a rotational grazing system. I have seen my cows eat these three weeds when very young. Mechanical tillage and replanting might work in areas that can take machinery later in the year when things dry up. Artificially lowing the water table with drainage tile could also help improve the competitiveness of your grasses and legumes compared to these sneaky weeds. Finally, you could use herbicides to combat these weeds. One of the options would be to spray-kill the pasture and no-till in your new pasture mix. The other option could be to use a herbicide such as Permit or Yukon. These herbicides kill broadleaf weeds which includes buttercup, sedges and rushes. Permit and Yukon have also had hay and pasture applications added to their labels with no risk to lactating or non-lactating cattle. However, be sure to read the labels on the herbicide to properly apply it if you have a license or have a professional do it. Though these weeds aren’t as obnoxious as thistle or multifloral rose, once established they have the potential to limit the productivity of your pastures and can be hard to eradicate because of their growth habit and preferred habitat. Happy Grazing! and remember to concentrate on pastures that are vital to your operation first then branch out.
Oh! one last fun fact for the craft person in your life, if you want to try and make a few extra dollars from slender rush you could try making and selling rush candle sets to homesteaders, off the grid folks, or living history museums.
Slender Rush in a Pasture
Rush Candle with iron stand
Anderson G. Weed Control Options for Pasture. Cooperative Extension: Garden & Yard. 2014 May 29 [accessed 2018 Jun 20]. https://extension.umaine.edu/livestock/home/pasture-course/lesson-4/weed-control-options-for-pasture/
- Jacobs, J., M. Graves, and J. Mangold. 2010. Plant guide
for tall buttercup (Ranunculus acris L.). USDA-Natural
Resources Conservation Service, Montana State Office.
Bozeman, Montana 59715.
O’Neil K, Hunter M. Sneaky Pasture Weeds- Sedges and Rushes. Cornell Field Crops News. 2014 Jul 15 [accessed 2018 Jun 20]. http://blogs.cornell.edu/ccefieldcropnews/2014/07/15/sneaky-pasture-weeds-sedges-and-rushes/
- Plant Database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center – The University of Texas at Austin. [accessed 2018 Jun 20]. https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=RAAC3
Sellers B, Ferrell J. Soft Rush (Juncus effusus) Control in Pastures. Range Cattle Research & Education Center. 2009 [accessed 2018 Jun 20]. http://rcrec-ona.ifas.ufl.edu/in-focus/IF4-1-09.shtml
- Yukon (http://www.gowanco.com/products/yukon.aspx) and Permit (http://www.gowanco.com/products/permit.aspx) herbicides, Gowan Company.
- Brown G. Menu. Country Diary of a 21st Century Woman. [accessed 2018 Jun 20]. https://gillyotter.wordpress.com/page/2/
- Nutsedge. Bucks Country Gardens. [accessed 2018 Jun 20]. http://www.buckscountrygardens.com/whats-deal-nutsedge-2/nutsedge/
- Ranunculus acris. Wikipedia. 2018 Jun 19 [accessed 2018 Jun 20]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranunculus_acris
- What is Rushlight? Rushlight Events. [accessed 2018 Jun 20]. https://www.rushlightevents.com/rushlight-awards/background/what-is-rushlight/
Mow, Mow as Fast as You Can
Hay has continued to grow rapidly this week and grass fields are at target NDF. Legume/grass stands have also reached their target NDF as of this sampling. Harvest of grass and mixed stands should progress as rapidly as possible. Legume fields are 5 to 7 days away from target NDF.
Grasses and legumes grew an average of 7 inches this week and increased by an average of 1 point of NDF per day this past week. NDF digestibility is still above 70%, but as grasses mature digestibility decreases rapidly as stem elongation advances. We recommend pausing corn planting and completing harvest of core acres as soon as possible.
Table 1 has each sample location, listed by Town and elevation, and lists the species sampled, average height, and neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom). NDF is the best predictor for forage harvest timing, we recommend harvest of grasses starting about 50% NDF and Alfalfa about 40% NDF, with mixed stands between 40 and 50 based on the alfalfa content.
We have included 24 hour Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility (NDFD), a measure of how quickly and completely forage can be digested in a cow’s rumen, larger numbers are better. Also is a column for un-digestible fiber (uNDF240), is correlated with how much of a forage a cow can eat, determining dry matter intake potential. Lower uNDF240 is better.
Haylage in a Day
As is often the case, we had a one day weather window this week, and several farms were able to take advantage and get a field or two done. The key is mowing in a wide swath (80% + of mower width if possible), even tedding after a couple hours of drying. Rapid dry down preserves more sugar in the forage aiding in better fermentation and more digestible nutrients. More days available for harvest and more nutrients per pound of forage are a winning combination. Click here for a web page with a good description of the concept.
A timely first cut is the essential first step to an adequate inventory of high quality feed. It’s our goal to provide this weekly crop progress report to support you in planning for a successful hay harvest season.
Click Delaware County Scissor Cut 5_24_18 for a printable pdf of this report.
Grass Is a Go, Time to Mow
Hay has grown rapidly during the past week and many grass fields have reached target NDF. A few grass fields are slightlybelow target but we would expect most to reach the target within the week. Several mixed stands with less than 50% legume are also near target NDF as of this sampling. We recommend starting grass harvest as soon as is practical. Mixed stands with less than 50% legume content should be considered for harvest soon. Mixed stand with more than 50% Legume content look to be at least a week away from target NDF.
The most advanced grass fields tested around 50% NDF this week, right at the recommend harvesting stage. Grass fields increased about 1.5 point of NDF per day this past week, which is greater than average, but not unprecedented. The first early orchardgrass heads appeared this week and grasses will continue to mature rapidly.
Table 1 has each sample location, listed by Town and elevation, and lists the species sampled, average height, and neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom). NDF is the best predictor for forage harvest timing, we recommend grasses be harvested starting about 50% NDF and Alfalfa about 40% NDF, with mixed stands between 40 and 50 based on the alfalfa content.
We have included 24 hour Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility (NDFD), a measure of how quickly and completely forage can be digested in a cow’s rumen, larger numbers are better. Also is a column for un-digestible Fiber (uNDF240), this is a measure of the fiber that will never be digested, and is correlated with how much of a forage a cow can eat, determining dry matter intake potential. Lower uNDF240 is better.
A timely first cut is the essential first step to an adequate inventory of high quality feed. It’s our goal to provide this weekly crop progress report to support you in planning for a successful hay harvest season.
It’s time for the 2018 harvest season to begin.
We will sample again on the May 22 and send results on or about May 24.
(Click Delaware County Scissor Cut 5 17 18 for a pdf of this report)
Table 1: Forage Height and Fiber Content 5/15/2018
Crows, geese and other bird pests are a perennial problems for Delaware County corn growers. Gravely soils near bird roosting and nesting areas are particularly vulnerable. Cornell Cooperative Extension has been demonstrating the use of Avipel Shield bird repellent seed treatment to limit the damage birds cause to emerging corn.
Birds attack corn stands soon after the plants emerge by pulling the small plants to get at the corn seed still attached to the developing root system. Planting corn more deeply (2 1/2 inches vs 1 1/2 inches) can help deter pulling, but achieving a uniform seeding depth in more gravely soils is not always possible. Avipel treatment coats each kernel with a protective coating that causes birds immediate, yet temporary, digestive distress. After attempting to eat newly planted seed, birds quickly look elsewhere, leaving newly planted fields
unharmed. Avipel Shield’s active ingredient is an organic chemical found in a number of plant species, including aloe vera and rhubarb. While being a particularly effective agent for repelling birds, it is non-lethal to them.
Field scale demonstrations in Delaware County have shown sections of corn fields planted with seed treated with the bird repellent had more than 2500 more plants per acre greater than sections planted with untreated seed.
Demonstration Trials in Delaware County and across New York State will be continuing in the 2018 season. (Thanks to NY Farm Viability Institute and New York Corn Growers for funding this project)
For more information email Dale Dewing [email protected]
Welcome to the first Forage Quality Scissors Cut report for 2018. This year we are sampling 41 sites in Delaware County and the NYC Watershed. The late, cold and snowy spring has delayed hay growth, but height measurements this week are surprisingly similar to other recent years.
The most advanced grass fields tested around 40% NDF this week, we recommend harvesting at 50% NDF. A rule of thumb is for grass to increase about 1 point of NDF per day, so with the forecast for the next couple weeks near average we would not expect any fields to reach target NDF in the next week. Grass maturity is behind average and we predict it will be ready for harvest a few days later than normal. Table 1 has each sample location, listed by Town and elevation, and lists the species sampled, average height, and neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom). NDF is the best predictor for forage harvest timing, we recommend grasses be harvested starting about 50% NDF and Alfalfa about 40% NDF, with mixed stands between 40 and 50 based on the alfalfa content. We have included 24 hour Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility (NDFD), a measure of how quickly and completely forage can be digested in a cow’s rumen, larger numbers are better. Also is a column for un-digestible Fiber (uNDF240), this is a measure of the fiber that will never be digested, and is correlated with how much of a forage a cow can eat, determining dry matter intake potential. Lower uNDF240 is better. Click here for a printable version
Forage Quality Matters
A recent Hoard’s Dairyman article (Fight low milk prices with high-forage diets, April 25, 2018 page 278) highlights a feeding study at Virginia Tech comparing a 60% forage diet to a 40% forage diet. It concludes, “high-forage diets improved income over feed cost by $1.90 per hundredweight”. We know many Delaware County dairies currently achieve this level of forage feeding, and we know good yields of highly digestible forage is the key. A timely first cut is the essential first step to an adequate inventory of high quality feed. It’s our goal to provide this weekly crop progress report to support you in planning for a successful hay harvest season.
It looks like this week will be a good week to get corn planted, weather permitting, and to get harvest equipment shined up and ready. We will sample again on the May 15 and send results on or about May 17.